Search Options
Home Media Explainers Research & Publications Statistics Monetary Policy The €uro Payments & Markets Careers
Sort by

Foreign reserves and own funds

Foreign reserves

The ECB’s foreign reserves ensure that the ECB has sufficient liquidity to conduct foreign exchange operations if needed. Those foreign reserves were originally established by means of the transfer of foreign reserve assets from the NCBs of the euro area when Stage Three of Economic and Monetary Union began on 1 January 1999.

The objectives for the management of the ECB’s foreign reserves are, in order of importance: liquidity, security and returns.

The ECB’s foreign reserves portfolio consists of US dollars, Japanese yen, Chinese renminbi (CNY), gold and special drawing rights. The composition of the reserves changes over time, reflecting changes in the market values of invested assets, as well as the ECB’s foreign exchange and gold operations.

The US dollar, Japanese yen and Chinese renminbi (CNY) reserves are actively managed by the ECB and selected euro area NCBs (acting as agents of the ECB) that wish to be involved in this operational activity. NCBs can opt to pool their operational activities for the management of the ECB’s foreign reserves with other NCBs. Each NCB or pool of NCBs usually manages a single US dollar or Japanese yen portfolio as an agent of the ECB.

The ECB carries out sales of gold in full conformity with the Central Bank Gold Agreement and the "Joint Statement on Gold" (see link to press releases below). The ECB is a signatory to these agreements.

To see the most recent figures on official reserve assets, go to Template on international reserves and foreign currency liquidity

For more information on international reserves, see Statistics on international reserves.

Related legal acts

ECB legal acts on foreign reserves, as published in the Official Journal of the European Union, are available on the dedicated "Legal framework" section of EUR-Lex.

Related press releases

Press releases on the ECB’s gold sales and the Joint Statement on Gold are available in the "Media" section of the ECB’s website.

External link

IMF guidelines for foreign exchange reserve management (20 September 2001)

Own funds

The ECB's own funds portfolio provides the ECB with income to help fund those operating expenses that are not related to the delivery of its supervisory tasks. It is invested in euro-denominated assets, subject to the limits imposed by its risk control framework. The ECB also considers risks originating from climate change in the management of its own funds portfolio.

The own funds portfolio predominantly invests:

  • the ECB’s paid-up capital
  • amounts set aside in the general reserve fund and the provision for financial risks

The own funds portfolio does not necessarily correspond in size to the sum of the ECB’s paid-up capital, general reserve fund and provision for financial risks, mainly owing to the reinvestment of income proceeds, the valuation of securities at market prices, and specific movements in the general reserve fund and the provision for financial risks.

Figure as at end-2023 (EUR billions)

The ECB’s own funds portfolio (market value)


For details, see the Annual Accounts of the ECB, published as part of the Annual Report.

Risk management

The efficient allocation and management of foreign reserves will promote the liquidity needed to fulfil policy mandates, while at the same time minimising the cost of holding reserves. Risk management can contribute to these objectives by managing and controlling exposure to financial risk.

The ECB is directly responsible for managing the risks entailed by its portfolios, including its foreign reserves and own funds portfolios. The management and monitoring of the financial risks incurred by the ECB – whether incurred directly by the ECB or as a result of Eurosystem NCBs acting on behalf of the ECB – covers the areas of market, credit and liquidity risks and involves four key areas of responsibility:

  • the setting of limits for credit and market risks;
  • compliance;
  • the measurement and reporting of risk exposures and performance;
  • strategic asset allocation.

The independent reporting of risk and performance is a key feature of the ECB’s investment framework. To avoid potential conflicts of interest, the management of financial risks incurred in portfolio management activities is entrusted to the Directorate Risk Management, which reports directly to the Executive Board.


Find out more about related content

All pages in this section